[LDi] Liquid Dynamics International Liquid Dynamics International Inc. Click here to: Contact Liquid Dynamics Liquid Dynamics offers pulsation, vibration, and shock analysis, diagnostics, and software models. Fluid Flow Control Animations
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OSCILLOGRAPHS
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6 examples

Gear & Packed Plunger Systems

Dosing, Air Op. &"Metering" Systems

Plunger & Valve Motions

Multi Plunger & Centrifugal Systems

Acceptable Maximums

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LDi Pulsation Analysis - target image A Typical "power" pump / API 674 system design.
Centrifugal system startup surge wave, backflow bang, valve deceleration hammer.

Centrifugal
systems

Centrifugal Systems
Multiplunger systems
Multiplex Plunger System

Multiplex / "Power" / API 674 Systems
For pump related pulse signatures see page P18
For RV-23 & controller 18 related pulse signature, Please see P15 item 6 bottom left.
Note: changes in value of any other red number will change frequency and amplitude of pulsation.
Multiplex Power System
Centrifugal pumping systems
Many additional "signatures" are from shaft deflection.

Pump Startup SurgeShut Down Back-Flow Bang
Valve Close Hammer

Centrifugal

 

Supply Filter strainer return controller spill back line sump Heat exchanger Multiplex RPM Restriction or Orifice Block valves Pressure indicators Meter Final resistance Pump start-up surge – into a pipe that is full Shut down back flow bang – in a 150 yard pipe continues to flow away from pump, sucks out avacuum, comes to a halt, rushes back to fill the void, pipe is dissipative Rapid valve closure hammer – valve slams in 0.1 seconds / 100 ms 14. Compressibility in parts of a Liter per Bar pressure change (ex. 50e–6, 19.6e–5, 11.39e–4) 14. Compressibility in parts of a Liter per Bar pressure change (ex. 50e–6, 19.6e–5, 11.39e–4) 13. Elasticity of pipe wall (ex. Steel 2e+11, concrete 4.2e+10, PVC 2.89e+9) 13. Elasticity of pipe wall (ex. Steel 2e+11, concrete 4.2e+10, PVC 2.89e+9) 12. Pressure resistance at end 13. Elasticity of pipe wall (ex. Steel 2e+11, concrete 4.2e+10, PVC 2.89e+9) 12. Pressure resistance at end 11. Total pipe run length 12. Pressure resistance at end 11. Total pipe run length 10. Average pipe diameter 10. Average pipe diameter 7. Or Pump spin down time 6. Valve closure time after pump start 7. Or Pump spin up time (whichever is slower) 5. Delta P of restrictions 5. Delta P of restrictions 4. Diameter of pipe 5. Delta P of restrictions 4. Diameter of pipe 3. Supply Length 4. Diameter of pipe 3. Supply Length 2. Positive suction head Negative suction head 2. Positive suction head Negative suction head 1. Nitrogen or air pad pressure in top of tank, bars 1. Nitrogen or air pad pressure in top of tank, bars 1. Nitrogen or air pad pressure in top of tank, bars 2. Positive suction head Negative suction head 3. Supply Length 6. Valve closure time after pump start 7. Or Pump spin up time (whichever is slower) 10. Average pipe diameter 11. Total pipe run length Valve closure time 14. Compressibility in parts of a Liter per Bar pressure change (ex. 50e–6, 19.6e–5, 11.39e–4)
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